# Comprehensive income and its components

Total comprehensive income represents the net change in shareholders’ equity resulting from a company’s operations excluding transactions with shareholders in their capacity as owners. Even though net income is the predominant part of such as change, there are certain other items that affect equity but not the income statement. Such items are collectively called other comprehensive income.

Comprehensive\ income = Net\ income + Other\ comprehensive\ income

## Other comprehensive income

Examples of other comprehensive income include: