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If we assume that wages and prices are sticky, monetary and fiscal policy interact as follows:
In addition to stabilization of aggregate demand, one goal of governments is to grow potential output which is achieved by encouraging private investments by following easy monetary and tight fiscal policy. The government might also be required to invest in human capital or a modern infrastructure, which if not financed with taxes requires easy monetary policy, which can induce inflation. But all these considerations are influenced heavily by political context. For example, a government might continue to provide heavy subsidies to certain sectors, which must be offset with contractionary monetary policy. Other factors influencing policy choice include lack of timely and reliable data, time lags, etc.
When fiscal policy is not coupled with monetary accommodation (i.e. there is no expansionary monetary policy), government spending has a far bigger impact than transfer payments or tax cuts. However, tax cuts or transfers aimed at the poorest segments have the most impact. However, if monetary policy is accompanied by monetary accommodation, fiscal multipliers are more pronounced. However, if monetary accommodation is in the form of central bank purchases of large amounts of government debt, it might be viewed as ‘printing of money’ i.e. monetization of government deficit.
In the long-run, persistently high budget deficit may cause a high interest rate thus causing a crowding out of private investments, thereby hurting an economy’s growth potential. This and lack of fiscal discipline nullify any positive impact of expansionary fiscal policy.
The proportion of government sector relative to the private sector would grow in which of the following interaction of monetary and fiscal policy?
A is correct. An easy fiscal policy means an increase in the budget deficit and a tight monetary policy means that money supply will shrink causing an increase in interest rate which would most likely decrease private investment. Hence, the government’s share of national income would grow. If both fiscal and monetary policies are expansionary, both sectors grow.
by Obaidullah Jan, ACA, CFA on Tue Feb 11 2020
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